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Glossary

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ABG, Type Approval Abbreviation for Allgemeine Bauartgenehmigung (General Design Certification) or Type Approval. In accordance with the Federal Department of Motor Vehicles guidelines, an ABG must always be present regarding the adhesion of films for use on vehicle windows. Each individual window must be marked with a corresponding label in order to document the proper bonding.
Additive Additives increase the chemical and physical properties of the film and ensure that these remain stable in the long term. Here the quality criteria of shrinking, becoming brittle, flammability, etc are most affected. Therefore the addition of halogen ensures that the film is non-flammable.
Adhesion Suitable for Use A film is suitable for use approximately 24 hours after adhesion. This is well above the initial adhesion and marginally below the ultimate adhesion.
Adhesion to Contoured Surfaces In modern car manufacturing, three different types of surface profiles are used: round profile, V-profile and flat profile. All three profile types must subsequently be bonded to contours from top to bottom. The film should not be placed under tension in the depression. Rather the so-called memory effect (i.e. retraction forces in the film) should be removed. This is done through a final tempering of the film at +85°C.
Adhesion to Joints Optimal adhesion to joints is achieved by bonding the parts of film in such a way that they overlap on the joints. On the overlapping film you leave a strip of protective paper approximately 2cm wide. Next the overlapping parts of film are cut through - down to the background using a film knife. Now the films are folded back and the strips of protective paper as well as the cut off bits of film are removed. The last step is folding the film back again and pressing it on.
Adhesive Adhesives are non-metallic materials; they can bind matter through surface bonding (adhesion) and internal stability (cohesion), without considerably changing the structure of the matter. In digital print media, extremely viscous plastics are used as adhesives.
Adhesive Force The adhesive force is generally measured as in terms of the strength needed to remove it in Newton (N) with 25mm wide adhesive strips (DIN 30646).
Adhesive Force Development The adhesive force development describes the development of the adhesive force e.g. a film on the surface from the time of bonding (initial adhesion) to 72 hours after the time of bonding (ultimate adhesion).
Adhesive Remover These are cleaners that dissolve and permanently remove contaminants such as tar, bitumen and adhesive residues, lubricants, resins, oils , grease, wax or nano-sealing. Optimal adhesion can only be achieved on a perfectly clean surface.
Air Free Some LG Hausys digital printing media are provided with air ducts on the glue surface. The rhombic structure enables the air to be drawn out during bonding. The result is a bubble and line-free adhesion and therefore, there is no need to use an Air Release Tool. Since June 2009 a more advanced version of the Airfree air ducts has been available. Since then, films with Airfree technology bear the initial T in the product name instead of the original A.
Air Release Tool

A pen with retractable metal pin for the handling of water and/or air pockets in the film. The bubbles can be pierced and the air released with the pin.

Anti-slip The anti-slip of flooring is divided into categories from R 9, which is the lowest level of anti-slip coating, to R 13, which is the highest requirement for an anti-slip finish. In practice sign makers must always ensure that, e.g. protective laminate on flooring should fall into the above named anti-slip categories to avoid as far as possible the possibility of a slip and thus personal injury.
Assembly Magnets Useful tools for fixing film prints to the metal surface (e.g. to a vehicle) simply and easily. To better position the overall graphics, the film is first applied across the entire side of the vehicle and secured with magnets. Now the film is bonded to the vehicle piece by piece (front and rear fenders, side doors, bonnet, tail, etc.).
Banding When printing in large format, banding is an unwanted side effect. The danger of banding is higher with a lower number of passes than with ink applications in finer printer ribbons. Reasons for this may lie in the lacking coordination properties between inks and print media or in choosing the wrong RIP.
Bi-directional Printing To increase the print speed and thus the productivity without sacrificing quality, more and more large-format printers print bi-directionally. They spray ink onto the print medium in both forward and backward movements. Thus, in contrast to unidirectional printing, every movement of the print head is used productively. For many printers, the functions can be controlled optimally.
Cache This is when the entire surface of a print is mounted on a sheet of plastic. The prints should be mounted with a self-adhesive glue. With sufficient squeegee pressure or contact pressure the pressure-responsive adhesive bonds well to the surface. The expression 'cache' comes from the French (cacher = to hide, to conceal). So the background is concealed behind the film.
Calibration The meaning of the word calibration always refers to the orientation towards an exact measurement. The actual values of the color are measured through monitoring, scanning and printing. They are then compared with the target values and adjusted to them. Thereby, reference templates serve as guides. Ideally both measurement results correspond so that the color represented on screen and the printed color are identical.
Casting Method

In principle, cast films are classified as higher quality than calendered films. Cast films are manufactured using the casting method. Whereas plastisols (granulate) are used in solid form in calendering, organsols are used as a fluid raw material in casting.

In contrast to extrusion/calendering processes, the plastic is not treated under pressure in the casting method, but rather it flows slowly from the mixing vessel on to the casting base (normally the process liner) and subsequently runs through several drying ovens until the solvents have escaped and the polymer material has solidified into film.

Chalking Chalking exists when the surfaces of the films display a floury coating following a short period of weathering. These coatings can normally be rubbed off easily. A slight fading of the corresponding hue may also occur. Reasons for this can be hyperpigmentation and/or non-weather resistant pigmentation or bonding agents in the manufacturing of the film.
Cleaning of the Background Surface

The adhesive of the LG Hausys films cause an exceptional grip of the films with almost every clean, dry, smooth, oil-free surface. This includes materials such as aluminum, chrome, stainless steel, glass and varnished surfaces.

Freshly varnished surfaces must be completely dry before adhesion takes place. Immediately before adhesion, the surfaces to be bonded must be cleaned thoroughly with a cleaning agent developed specially for this purpose. Isopropanol cleaner, which has a degreasing effect, is recommended for this.

Climate Conditions Film products must be stored in dry, clean, cool rooms and must be protected from the sun. Therefore, storage temperature should not exceed 38°C. Ideally the air humidity should be 50-60%. If these climate conditions are not observed, this could lead to a change in the cell structure of the protective paper. Consequences are the swelling or shrinking of the fibers. This leads to changes in the dimensions of the film.
Climate Zone A climate zone is a geographical area with, roughly speaking, the identical climatic conditions. For the use of high performance films, the light of a climate zone plays a particularly significant role. First and foremost, these depend on differing solar radiation and/or sun intensity. Therefore, the functioning life-span of a film depends significantly on the given climate zone and the UV exposure in the given zone, in which the film is being used. In general, it can be said that the UV exposure gradually increases from the Poles up to the equator.
CMYK This stands for the basic colors cyan, magenta and yellow. The K stands for black (black backwards). The lightness is subtracted at the color mixing. Therefore, one also talks about the subtractive color mixing. In an ideal case, CMY Black should also exist. In reality however, this color combination only yields a dark brown. Therefore black is added as a separate color.
Coating English coating. Most digital print media are provided with an additional coating. The coating makes the surface of the print media more water resistant than uncoated media. A further advantage of the coating is that the print ink is absorbed quickly and as a result, the printout feels dry to the touch very quickly after it has been printed.
Color Match Color Match is the color matching service in accordance with a customer's request and is normally carried out for colored films. Here the customer is given more colors to choose from which vary from each other only in the finest nuance
Color Stimulus Specification This term describes the effect of a color stimulus on the receptors of the eye. The result of the repetition of the identical color stimulus is a particular color impression perceived by the viewer. Prerequisite for this recurring experience is a constant environment. Colorimetry is used to describe the color stimulus.
Color Tones If the setting copy and the reproduced image exhibit a difference in color difference, then the color tone is not correct. CIELab (the largest space comes closest to the human eye) as a basis for the colorimeter. Color tones are measured in units of Delta-E. This standard enables the geometric representation and mathematical approximation of color shifts.
Colorimetry The color stimulus specification is described using three numerical values (X,Y,and Z). These are determined in a standard colour table. Every type of colour has a place in a coordinate system as a hue and saturation. This ensures that ink compositions can be repeated and adjusted.
Cracks

Cobweb cracks can form over the whole surface of the film due to incorrect printing or adhesion. The reasons for this can be, for example, a too high a ratio of solvent in the printing film. By adhering to the maximum standard values (approximately 6-8%) of solvent in the ink, experience has shown that this problem does not arise.

A further reason for the occurrence of cracks can be that the film was bonded under tension. The film should however always be processed with hot air, in order to give it a lasting form. In doing so the Memory Effect of the film is removed.